Bells - types and uses


Campanula means bell

Bells have been loved since ancient times in Russia. Everyone knows these cute and modest flowers.

In a meadow and in a forest glade, in a remote ravine and on the bank of a river, their blue, blue, purple or white flowers greet us warmly. However, not all bells have dark blue flowers. Among them there are species with white, fawn, pale ocher, pink, light lilac and purple corolla colors.

Bells are one of the most popular plants among the people. This can be seen at least by the well-aimed, affectionate local names: bells, bells, doves, eagles, etc. In the midst of the strawberry season, when red berries ripen, a real beauty of our forests blooms in light forests and clearings - a peach-leaved bell. Its light blue, large, classical-shaped flower is as if cast from sonorous metal.


It is one of the largest of all 150 species of bells in the native flora. Blue or lilac-blue (rarely white) corollas cut into five lobes with short teeth hang on legs from the tops of a slender high stem, attracting tireless bees and bumblebees. In the depths of the corolla there is a nectar gland, from which only large insects can get nectar. If cross-pollination with their help did not happen, then self-pollination is possible for this handsome man.

All bells are varied in shape and size of the flower (from 1 to 7 cm), bush height - from 6 to 150 cm), color and size of leaves, flowering time.

They can be used in single and group plantings, ridges and borders, rockeries and flower containers, for vertical gardening and for cutting. Whatever your flower garden, you can always choose the type you need from such a variety of bells.

Recently, when landscaping parks, squares, personal plots, plants characteristic of natural landscapes are increasingly used. Refined roses, luxurious peonies, bright phloxes and dahlias give way to more modest and unpretentious cornflowers, volzhankas, anemones, ferns, hosts and, of course, romantic bells.

Bells growing in the garden bring him prosperity, and in England this flower is considered sacred. It got the name "Canterbury Bells" due to its resemblance to the bells worn by the horses of pilgrims on their way to the tomb of Thomas Canterbury. Wandering monks, on foot or on horseback, also carried bells, by the ringing of which the village knew that they were approaching with blessings and medicines for the sick. Thus, it is easy to see why the Canterbury Bells have come to be regarded as harbingers of good fortune.

There are over 250 species of bluebells, which are found mainly in the northern hemisphere. Many of them grow in the mountainous regions of Europe and the Mediterranean.

The scientific name comes from the Latin word campanula - bell. Plants of this genus are distinguished by long, straight, slightly lowered at the top, creeping or creeping stems. Leaves are alternate, at the base of the stem are sometimes collected in rosettes. Bloom from June to the onset of frost.

Low-growing species are a mandatory range of rock gardens. The flowers of this plant enliven the landscape well. Bells are very unpretentious plants (except for alpine species): they are unpretentious to the soil and growing conditions. They grow well in stone walls, among cracks in stairs, between tiles lined with garden paths.

Almost all wild-growing bells are decorative, and it is no coincidence that they have been used in garden culture since the Middle Ages. For a long time and widely known bells are peach-leaved, crowded, pyramidal, broad-leaved, medium and others.

There are fewer and fewer of these bells in our forests - they suffer because of their attractiveness and insecurity. That is why lovers of bouquets can be advised to grow garden bells, especially since the peach-leaved bell has been known in culture since the 16th century.

Bells, whose ancestors in nature grew in forest clearings, edges, in dark ravines, grow well in the shade in culture and can decorate the darkest parts of your garden.

These are, for example, nettle-leaved bells, broad-leaved, crowded, peach-leaved, rapunzel-like, etc. , - these are bells of daisy-leaved, three-toothed, border, Radde, gargan.

In the middle lane, bells can do without watering. The need for additional moisture can arise only during dry periods.

A special place is occupied by shirokolokolchik or platycodon, the name of which perfectly characterizes the shape of the corolla as a wide bell. It grows in Eastern Siberia, the Far East, Japan, Korea, China, dry meadows and rocky gravelly places.

There are many garden forms, including dwarf ones, with double and semi-double white, light blue and pink flowers. Shirokokolokolchik large-flowered is a perennial bluish plant with straight, densely leafy shoots 40–45 cm high. The flowers are large, up to 8 cm in diameter, apical solitary or 3-5 in a paniculate inflorescence. Corolla broadly funnel-shaped, bright blue, blue, less often white.

The buds of the original shape are like small rounded lanterns. Spring regrowth is late in comparison with other bells - in the middle, and sometimes even at the end of May. Blooms from mid-June, long-lasting flowering. Bears fruit in September. In the conditions of the middle lane, full-fledged, viable seeds ripen. It is better to grow Platycodon in well-drained open sunny places, but it also tolerates partial shade.


Drought-resistant. Grows well on loose loam. Does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater. Winter-hardy. The best way to propagate is by seed. In culture since 1872. Platycodon is extremely effective during flowering in a rocky garden and in small groups on a lawn in combination with other plants. Looks very good in bouquets. It is especially interesting because it blooms in the second half of summer, when the main flowering of most bells ends.

A couple of years ago, by pure chance, I purchased the seeds of Bonet and Lanceolate codonopsis, which I want to tell about at the end of the article. Codonopsis is a perennial plant with straight or winding branchy stems 60–100 cm long. The genus includes about 40 species, distributed mainly in East and Central Asia, in our country - only in the Far East and in the mountains of Central Asia. Codonopsis grow in alpine and subalpine meadows, on shady edges, along streams and in river valleys, in meadows.

It has been cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant since the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The underground parts of plants are used as a medicine in the treatment of the respiratory system, bronchial asthma, ear, throat, nose, and digestive organs.

In Chinese folk medicine, the roots of one of the types of codonopsis are used as a tonic, and the other two are excellent honey plants and fodder plants. Codonopsis grow in alpine and subalpine meadows, on shady edges, along streams and in river valleys, in meadows.

Lanceolate codonopsis is one of the tallest species. This is a liana that rises to a height of 2-3 meters, and its flowers are large, very beautiful in shape, bell-shaped, greenish-yellow with purple specks and with the tips of the petals bent outward. The plant needs support to grow. The place of residence is required shady or semi-shady, humid.

In culture, it grows better in a well-lit place, but only with sufficient moisture. It is undemanding to soils, but prefers loose and nutritious ones. Western catalogs zone: (5) 6-8. In the middle lane it is winter-hardy, but preventive cover with coniferous spruce branches is desirable. In my garden, I only take him off the support and lay him on the ground, so that he covers himself. Unfortunately, codonopsis are not widespread in our gardens, but, in my opinion, they deserve the attention of gardeners and lovers of rarities.

Svetlana Seregina,
pos. Strelna


Perennial bell types:

Carpathian - differs in funnel-bell-shaped flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm. It is grown both by seedlings and non-seedlings.

Prealpine - reaches 5-10 cm in height. It has rough leaves with short hairs and single blue flowers. It grows in natural conditions in the Alps at an altitude of 1400-2800 m.

Three-toothed - grows in the Caucasus, the Balkans, Asia Minor. It is characterized by thin stems and rosette leaves. It has dark purple flowers up to 4 cm in diameter.

Darkish - undersized perennial species, 5-10 cm high. Blossoms in July-August with large dark purple, less often white flowers.

Turfy - grows in the highlands of the Alps. It has oval leaves and single white or blue flowers. Blooms from early June. Looks good in rockeries.

Gargan - it has erect and very fragile stems. Its leaves are petiolate, medium-sized, and the flowers are blue with open petals, up to 4 cm in diameter.

Pozharsky - is found not only in gardens, but also in the field. Perennial, winter-hardy plant. Inflorescences are racemose and can be lilac, blue, pink.

Otrana - has thin stems, partially recumbent, slightly branched. Leaves are basal, ovate-cordate, on long petioles. It blooms profusely in early summer with purple flowers of a classic bell-shaped shape.

Portenschlag - perennial bell with delicate purple flowers up to 3 cm in diameter. Up to 5 flowers can be seen on the shoots. A winter-hardy species that does not require shelter.

Spoon-leaved - grows on limestones in the Alps and Carpathians. Has thin, threadlike stems. The flowers are drooping, white, blue and blue, up to 1 cm in diameter.

Bored - reaches 60 cm in height. Differs in an erect stem and elongated elliptical leaves.


Similar types of garden flowers

In addition to the numerous species diversity, the bell has a lot of plants similar to it. They differ in many characteristics, but they share a similar flower shape.

High

Plants are characterized by sufficient stem height and predominantly are planted in the background of mixborders or flower beds, as well as along fences or walls.

Adenophor. Belongs to the bellflower family. The plant belongs to tall perennials. The flowers are quite large, painted in classic colors: white, blue, lilac. The buds are combined into medium-sized inflorescences. The leaf plates are slightly elongated, the shoots are thick.

It begins to bloom in the last days of June and ends at the end of July. During flowering, it emits a bright honey smell.

Hyacintoides or wild hyacinth. This tall perennial begins to bloom in late spring and pleases with buds for about a month. The plant consists of a thick stem, on which small bell flowers of different colors are formed. Smooth, elongated leaf plates grow from the base.

Shirokokolokolchik. Perennial, which is better known in the East. It is characterized by a branchy form of shoots, it grows about a meter. Large buds of white, blue or dark purple tones are formed on single stems.

Digitalis. The perennial has tall and thick stems, lanceolate leaf plates grow on their lower part, and peduncles form at the top. The buds grow alternately up to the end of the apex and have several color options: white, cream, pink or purple. The inside of the cup is decorated with pinkish dots. The plant differs in undemanding care.

Low

Such crops, despite their squat size, serve as a real decoration of the site.

Galanthus. The plant is better known as the snowdrop. A short perennial bloom in late winter - early spring. The flower grows to a height of 10-15 cm. Graceful buds are white, with possible spots or stripes inside the calyx.

Gloxinia. The plant is also called a velvet bell. Often planted as an indoor flower. It looks like a large violet. The bush is small, with bright velvety flowers and the same leaves. The buds have a different color - both monochromatic and with the presence of spots or white edging.

Begins to bloom in early spring, flowering is long.

White

Such flowers attract the eye with their graceful, delicate appearance.

Lily of the valley. A miniature herbaceous crop with fragrant snow-white or pale pink small bells. From 6 to 20 buds are formed on a strong stem.

  • Ostrovsky. The flower is extremely rare, recorded in the Red Book. The height of the plant is about 1 m. The flowers are large, white in color, last the entire summer period.

Datura. Considered to be low annuals. On one stem, one large bell-bud, mostly white, blooms, although sometimes a light purple hue is present. Leaves are deep green in color, have a fleecy surface. A characteristic feature of the plant is the opening of the buds at sunset. When growing, it must be remembered that the flower has poisonous properties.

Blue

Bright blue-blue buds will serve as a bright decoration for any flower garden.

Cyanantus. Belongs to the bell family. Perennial, does not differ in large size. Inflorescences of pale blue color are also small. The leaves that grow from the base of the stem are covered with villi.

Symphiandra. A perennial species of the bellflower family, characterized by many varieties. Prefers rocky areas of the Caucasus and Asia for growth in nature. The plant is tall, with branched stems. Leaves are rare, slightly elongated. Bluish flowers are large and grow singly.

Pink

Inflorescences of this tone will charm anyone with their delicate appearance.

Smithiante. A short perennial with pubescent greenish-burgundy shoots. The bush grows up to 30-50 cm. Opposite-growing leaves are located along the entire length of the stem, also densely pubescent, with jagged edges. Small bells form rare paniculate inflorescences. The flowers are fragrant, predominantly red, pink or orange.

Godetia. An annual plant growing up to 60 cm, with straight stems, often branched and bell-shaped (less often cupped) buds. They can range in tones from pink to purple-red. The flowers form long, cluster-like inflorescences.

Purple

Delicate bells of this shade look spectacular both in single and in group plantings.

Scylla bell-shaped. The plant is not very tall - 40-50 cm. Bell-shaped buds (1.5-2 cm) form a racemose inflorescence on a single peduncle. The colors range from light blue to bright purple. Less commonly, the flowers are pinkish or white.

Others

Plants with a variety of colors are no less beautiful. Their bell-shaped inflorescences will effectively complement any composition in the garden.

Aquilegia. Mainly hybrids are grown as a horticultural crop. Depending on the variety, the buds have different parameters and colors.Peduncles grow from the middle of the bush, each decorated with several bell flowers with a complex shape. Some species have spurs where nectar is formed. The plant has a very light aroma.

Brugmansia. The shrub has a tall, tree-like trunk. The leaf plates are slightly elongated, light green in color. The inflorescences are large, bright yellow, orange, cream or white-green. The people call the bush "angelic trumpets".

Campanula. An unpretentious herb that grows up to 50 cm in height. Graceful bells are painted in different colors. Light green shoots are slightly drooping, since the buds are large in size. Differs in a very large species and varietal diversity.

Gloxinia. The plant has short shoots and velvety bright green leaf plates. The flowers also have a velvet texture, the colors are monochromatic (white, purple, red) or two-tone, and sometimes the cups are decorated with specks. Gloxinia creeping with twisting stems looks very beautiful in the garden.

Lobelia. From a distance, the plant does not at all resemble a bell, but if you look closely, you can see the similarity in the shape of a cup. Inflorescences are mainly white or violet-lilac in color with the presence of a whitish eye.

Grouse. Among the varietal variety, the imperial hazel grouse looks the most exquisite. It belongs to perennial flowers, has thick shoots. At their top, inflorescences of several bells are formed, which can have different colors. Some varieties are spotted in color. The flowering period lasts about 2 months. There are spring and summer flowering varieties.

Codonopsis. A perennial can have both a creeping and a direct shoot, depending on the variety. The stems and leaves are covered with villi. Bell buds grow singly, bloom almost all summer. The flowers are of a single color: white-green, blue, lilac or blue, there may be specks inside the calyx. During flowering, it emits a not very pleasant aroma.

Kobei. Of all the species, the creeping kobei is most often cultivated. The plant has long, curly vines that cling to supports through tendrils. The leaf plates are dark green, oval. Shoots are low, with large flowers of snow-white or lilac-purple tones. Bloom all summer long, exuding a strong aroma.

Gentian. The plant is distinguished by its species diversity. This name was given to him because of the very bitter leaf plates and inflorescences. Flowers grow singly and can have a variety of colors. Depending on the species, they are medium-sized or tall, as well as annuals or perennials. The flowering period is again dependent on the variety and lasts from May to September.

The flower has medicinal properties.


Annual varieties are most often low-growing shrubs, reaching no more than 12 cm. They are widely distributed in the Balkans and the Mediterranean. The flowering period lasts throughout the summer, from late May to mid-September.

Common species of annuals

  • Forked bell (Campanula dichotoma)... Height - 15-20 cm, has wide leaves and purple buds.
  • Kashmiri (Campanula cashmeriana) - bushes 5-8 cm, flower head - 1.5-2 cm, purple color.
  • Long-stemmed (Campanula longistyla) - height up to 1.5 meters, flowers of a purple hue. The diameter of the buds is 4 cm.
  • Betulifolia (Campanula betulifolia)... Differs in white "bells", racemose. The flowers hang beautifully on the stems.

Perennial species of campanula

Perennials are much more hardy and tolerate temperature fluctuations very well.

  • Carpathian bell (Campanula carpatica)... One of the most common subspecies in mid-latitudes. A bushy plant up to 30 cm high, has leafy shoots. The basal rosette has long-petiolate ovoid leaves. Flowering lasts about 8 weeks, the colored heads are colored white, blue, purple.
  • Spoon-leaved (Campanula cochleariifolia). Small penetrating blue flowers, up to 16 cm high. Creeping shoots.
  • Komarova (komarovii) - stems of a branching type of medium height (40-45 cm). The flowers are evenly distributed along the entire length of the pagon, and are painted in bright purple color.
  • Broadleaf (Campanula latifolia)... A tall species that grows up to 1 meter. Flowers up to 6 cm axillary, ingrown into a spike-shaped raceme, are colored blue, white or blue.
  • Bell middle (Campanula medium)... A biennial species, sometimes grown as a one-year-old. Height - 50-100 cm, flowers are common and double. Shades - white, blue, pink.

There are many more varieties of culture that can be a worthy decoration for the garden. You can visually familiarize yourself with the floristic diversity by looking at the photo of the bell.


Description

Bell (Latin Campanula) is a genus of exclusively herbaceous plants from the Campanulaceae family.

Stems are simple or branched from 5 to 150 cm in height. The leaves are arranged in the next order, sometimes collected in a rosette. Inflorescences are paniculate, less often racemose, in some species the flowers are single. The corolla is spine-lobe, bell-shaped, funnel-shaped, tubular-bell-shaped, less often flatish and almost wheel-like.

The fruit is a capsule. Seeds are numerous, small, viable for up to 4 years. Up to 4500 seeds in 1 gram.

By ability bells preserve leaves during the growing season, most of the species can be attributed to summer green, that is, their growing season (spring regrowth) begins in spring at an average temperature of + 5 ° C, and ends with the first frost.

Another group of species is winter-green, these are plants that retain the ability to grow throughout the year, that is, from snow to snow. If such plants are transferred to a warm room in the fall, then they retain green leaves for the whole winter, and will bloom in April.

These are, for example, Mediterranean species - bells medium, povoynichkovy, gargan - or Caucasian species - bells of Kemularia and Radde. These species can be recommended as indoor potting crops, and the middle bell is recommended as a forcing crop and for cutting.

Growing conditions

Bells are undemanding to soils, but they develop better on well-cultivated, drained, with sufficient nutrition, neutral or slightly alkaline soils.

It is desirable that the site be well drained with the help of branch ditches or drainage pipes, since the bells do not tolerate stagnant water during wintering, their roots rot and freeze out. Do not plant them in areas flooded with rain or spring waters.

The soil for planting plants is prepared in advance by digging up to 30-40 cm and carefully removing the weeds. Sand and peat are added to heavy clay and loamy soils.

These soils contain enough nutrients, therefore fertilization should be applied in small quantities. In loose, but sandy soils poor in humus, sod land, peat, humus or silty pond soil should be added.

Fresh peat and manure should not be applied, as this can cause an outbreak of fungal diseases.

As for the acidity of the soil, most species grow well on neutral and slightly alkaline, and species such as bearded and cut bells grow well on slightly acidic soil.

Mountain species that grow in nature on limestone rocks need slightly alkaline soils, therefore, it is better to calcify the soil before planting them (three-toothed bells, Osh, Kemularia, etc.).

In the spring, before the start of spring regrowth, the plants need to be fed with nitrogen fertilizer, it is good to pour well-rotted manure and ash under the bushes (at the rate of 400 g per 10 m2). Before budding, fertilizing with mineral NPK mixtures of low concentration (10-15 g / m2) is useful.

In the first half of summer (before flowering), regular weeding and loosening of the soil are required. Most bells in the middle lane can do without watering, during dry periods they are watered sparingly.

The exception is forest and coastal species (broadleaf, dotted bells, Takeshima). All bells do not tolerate stagnant water. If you carefully remove wilted flowers and dried peduncles, then you can extend the flowering period of the bells.

The flowering shoots left for collecting seeds are cut off when the bolls are brown, but before the pores are opened (otherwise the seeds will spill out on the ground). In late September - early October, all stems are cut to the root.

Bells are transplanted in spring and autumn. In early spring (after the snow melts), bells with a strong root system (broadleaf, crowded bells, etc.) can be transplanted. Bells with a less developed root system are best replanted in May, when the soil warms up.

In autumn, it is better to do this in late August - early September, so that the plants have time to take root before the onset of frost. Some species with compact, shallow root systems can be replanted throughout the growing season, even during flowering.

Plants should be transplanted with a large clod of earth in order to injure the roots as little as possible, and it is good to shed a pre-prepared hole before and after planting (Carpathian bells, round-leaved, polymorphic, spoon-leaved, gargan, medium, etc.).

Only southern species (bells gargan, pyramidal, middle, etc.) require easy shelter with spruce branches or a dry leaf. You can sprinkle tall plants with dry peat or humus with a layer of 15-20 cm, but not more.

Reproduction

Reproduction:

  • seeds,
  • dividing the bush,
  • segments of rhizomes,
  • root suckers,
  • green cuttings.

Reproduction techniques depend on the biological characteristics of a given species, its life form. Thus, annual species reproduce only by seeds, biennial species - by seeds and spring cuttings.

Among perennials there are vegetatively immobile ones - these are tap-root and cluster-root plants, reproduce only by seeds. Vegetatively sedentary - short-rhizome, propagated by seeds, dividing the bush and green cuttings.

Vegetatively mobile - long-rhizome, stolon-forming and root-sucking plants, propagated by seeds, dividing the bush, root suckers, rhizome segments, green cuttings.

Seed reproduction. The fruits (capsules) of the bells are harvested when they turn brown, but until the pores open. After drying the capsules, the seeds spill out themselves through the opened pores. Bellflower seeds are usually very small, so they can be mixed with washed sand or crushed chalk before sowing.

Seeds can be sown directly into the ground (in spring or autumn) or pre-grow seedlings from them and plant them in a flower garden with the onset of heat. Seedling beds must be prepared in advance. For spring sowing, the ridges must be prepared in the fall. The soil must be air permeable and sufficiently nutritious.

Sow superficially or very finely. The sown seeds can be covered with a thin layer of sand. In spring, seeds are sown in May, in autumn - in the second half of October. Seeds sown in spring germinate in 10-12 days.

Podwinter crops sprout next spring, two weeks after the ground thaws and warms up. Seedlings are thinned out, and after the appearance of the third leaf, they dive in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 10 cm from each other.

You can sow seeds before winter not in the beds, but in boxes with light fertile soil. For the winter, boxes are buried in the garden, covered with foil. In the spring, the film is removed, and the boxes are shaded from the bright sun. In June, seedlings dive into the beds, where they grow until the next spring, when they are planted in a permanent place in a flower garden.

For growing seedlings in a greenhouse, seeds are sown in March in pick boxes. The boxes are filled with a mixture of two-year leaf or turf soil with sand and the addition of well-weathered crushed peat. Organic fertilizers should not be applied. Seedlings usually appear in 10-15 days, they dive, and in early June the seedlings are planted in the ground.

Vegetative propagation allows you to get plants that accurately repeat all the properties of the mother. This is especially valuable for semi-double and double forms that do not bear fruit, and southern species of bells, the seeds of which do not ripen in our conditions.

Plants are usually divided and transplanted in the 3-5th year of vegetation, however, some bells, for example, bells peach, speckled, Takeshima, crowded, rapunzel-like, can be divided in the fall in the first year of flowering.

The bushes are divided in early May or August, so that the plants have time to take root before the onset of frost.

Division of the bush: the mother plant is dug up, the aerial shoots are cut off and cut into separate sections with a knife or a shovel. Each division must have a root system and several renewal buds.

This is how bells are divided into crowded, head, oblong-leaved, etc.

Division of rhizomes: the excavated rhizome is divided into segments with several renewal buds and planted in shallow grooves so that the renewal buds are at the soil level (rapunce-shaped bells, spoon-leaved, peach-leaved, Kemularia, etc.).

Root offspring separated from the mother plant along with the roots and transplanted into a flower garden. This is how point bells, Takeshima, etc. are propagated. Young growing shoots are used for cuttings.

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The Carpathian bell (Campanula carpatica) is common on calcareous rocks in the upper rop belt of Europe. It has a fibrous, whitish root. Stems 20 - 40 cm high, numerous, straight, branched, form a spherical bush.

Leaves are long-petiolate, heart-shaped basal - up to 5 cm long, stem - smaller. The flowers are single, large, up to 3 cm long and the same width, blue. Blooms from late June - early July to mid-September. The flowering is very abundant. Seeds ripen in August - October, have a high germination capacity (up to 90%). Abundant self-seeding is often formed.

The nettle-leaved bell (Campanula trachelium) grows mainly in shady, mostly mixed forests. Distributed in Europe, Western Siberia, North Africa. The nettle-leaved bell is also popularly called the big bell, upland, gooseneck, throat grass and lotion grass for its use in the treatment of sore throat. Its leaves and roots are used in salad, and young leaves are used for cooking cabbage soup.

Campanula cochleariifolia can be found on limestones in the mountains of Europe. A low, creeping perennial with threadlike stems 10 - 18 cm high, forms a continuous sod. The leaves are small, light green. The flowers are white, blue, drooping, up to 1 cm in diameter, collected in loose inflorescences. Blooms from mid-June to late August, abundant flowering and fruiting. Self seeding is possible. Decorative until late autumn.

The milk-flowered bell (Campanula lactiflorа) lives in the upper forest and subalpine belts of the Caucasus Mountains and Asia Minor. Tall (60-100 cm) racemose plant with a highly branched stem in the upper part. The flowers are 3 cm in diameter, from milky white to lilac in color, collected in a broad-pyramidal inflorescence with up to 100 flowers.It blooms very profusely in June-July, numerous seeds are formed in August.

Peach bell (Campanula persicifolia) is a cluster-root plant of forests and forest edges of Europe, the Caucasus and Western Siberia. From the rosette of basal leaves in the middle of summer, a slender, strong stem, 60 - 100 cm high, with smaller than rosette, linear-lanceolate dark green leaves, rises.

The stem ends with a cluster of blue or white flowers. The corolla of the flower is broadly bell-shaped, 3 - 3.5 cm wide. There are garden forms with double flowers. The bell blooms from June almost all summer.

On faded shoots, fruits are laid - boxes with numerous seeds, ripening in August-September. Self seeding is possible. To lengthen the flowering period and preserve decorativeness, the formation of seeds is not allowed, removing the faded flowers, and separate lower specimens are left as testes. Youngster.

Pozharsky's bell (Campanula poscharskyana) is a plant of limestone rocks of southern Europe, the Balkans. Forms a dense pillow 15-20 cm high from petiolate heart-shaped leaves and numerous peduncles.

The flowers are broadly bell-shaped, almost star-shaped, light plum-blue. Blooms very profusely from July to late summer. Seeds ripen in August-September. In culture, mainly varieties are used that differ in the larger size of the entire plant, as well as the color of the corolla.

Blauranka is a very large, vigorous variety, 20 cm high, with light blue flowers that do not lose their decorative effect. Suitable for forcing and growing on balconies. Plants of varieties EG Frost have a height of 15 cm, a white flower with a blue eye Lisduggan - a height of 20 cm, a lavender pink flower, Stella - a height of 15 cm, a large, star-shaped, dark purple flower.

Diseases and pests

Bells are rarely damaged by diseases and pests. However, with long-term cultivation in one place, pathogenic microorganisms can accumulate in the soil, causing the death of plants.

The most harmful of the fungi are Fusarium, Sclerotinia, Botrytis. A double treatment (in spring and autumn) of the soil and aboveground parts of plants with a 0.2% solution of foundationol will help to get rid of diseases.

From pests on bells in damp weather, a slobbering penny can appear, and slugs can appear under stunted species with abundant foliage. The fastest way to get rid of slugs will help a handful of superphosphate, scattered at the base of the stem, or sprinkling with a decoction of capsicum, and an infusion of garlic for a slobbering penny.

Using

Solitary landings, or tapeworm (translated from French - "lonely, solitary"). A single plant, in order to attract attention, must be tall, with beautiful leaves, flowers and inflorescences, bloom for a long time and maintain a decorative effect.

On the lawn, near the reservoir, at the fork in the paths, you can plant a lush bush of broad-leaved bell, up to 1.5 m high, nettle-leaved, pyramidal and peach-leaved bells with white or blue flowers.

The flowering bellflower bush with numerous light lilac, broadly bell-shaped flowers, collected in lush racemose inflorescences, a middle bell, similar to a bouquet of pink, blue, white or blue flowers, in which leaves are almost invisible, looks spectacular against the background of the dark foliage of trees and shrubs. Interesting for single landings and the tirso-shaped bell.

Groups. This is the most common type of planting of perennials. A group of large-flowered bells will decorate any lawn, tall plants can serve as a smooth transition from arboreal and shrubby plants to the lawn, and shade-tolerant species such as nettle-leaved bells, peach-leaved, crowded, rapune-like, broad-leaved, dotted, will revive the shaded corners of your garden.

The group should not be strictly symmetrical in shape, it is better to arrange it as a natural composition with a smoothly winding outline. The planting density of plants in a group depends on the species.

Tall bells (broad-leaved bells, milky-flowered, nettle-leaved, pyramidal, noble-large-flowered, rapunzel-shaped) are planted in loose groups (at a distance of 45-60 cm) for their better development and a greater decorative effect; medium-high - 25-30 cm apart or 6 -12 plants per 1 m2, and undersized plants - up to 20 plants per 1 m2.

Group plantings can be made up of one species, and all bells are suitable for such monochromatic colorful groups. More complex groups are created from bells of different species with different flowering periods.

Bells can also be used in mixed groups with other perennials (lychnis, trollius, chamomile, etc.), but when choosing plants, it is necessary to take into account the height, flowering time, color and shape of flowers and leaves, habit.

Flower bed (from it. Rabatte - "bed" is a long strip or "wide tape" with parallel sides). Plants are planted in long parallel rows or staggered. The beds are placed on the lawn, along the paths and retaining walls or platforms.

They can be one-sided and two-sided, single-tiered and multi-tiered. On a one-sided rabatka, tall plants are planted on the far side (bells are large-ear, Bologna, pyramidal, broad-leaved, lactic-flowered, nettle-leaved, thyrsoid, etc.), low ones are closer to the front (Carpathian, Altai, Siberian, divergent, border, gargan, etc.) ).

You can arrange the plants with a gradual decrease towards the front side, then the rabatka becomes multi-tiered.

If the background is shrubs or hedges of climbing plants, then the rabatka can be decorated with not very tall plants, such as garlic-leaved bells, pale ocher, Sarmatian, Hoffman, lyre, crowded.


Bells - the charm of your garden

Landscape use

Abundant and prolonged flowering of bells, a variety of colors and shapes of flowers allow them to be widely used in the design of gardens. These plants look great in single and group plantings, flower beds, mixborders and borders, on alpine slides and with vertical gardening. bells are suitable both for container culture and for cutting.

For group plantings with a smoothly winding contour, created as natural compositions, tall types of bells are suitable - nettle-leaved, Bolognese, broad-leaved, as well as medium-sized ones - long-columnar, Sarmatian, and undersized - Carpathian and perforated.

From low-growing bells, you can create a border - with plants they frame a bright flower garden or place them along the paths. For species such as peach, crowded, long-stemmed and bearded, areas with morning or evening sun are suitable. light shading is tolerated by bells of the Carpathian, dark, spoon-leaved, gargan, flax-leaved, round-leaved and Moravian.

All bells can be used to create an elongated mixborder and flower garden.

If you select these plants by height, flowering time, color of flowers and leaves, you can create a mixborder only from bells.

In a complex mixborder, these flowers are planted together with ferns, volzhanka, astilba, swimsuit, bergenia and lungwort.

In small garden areas, flowers can be placed in containers, pots and vases on metal and wooden stands. Hanging containers are also used, which are placed singly or in groups to decorate the entrance of a house or nondescript walls.

For this purpose, abundantly flowering species with thin drooping stems are suitable: white, blue, blue bouquets of the Carpathian bell, blooming all summer, or hanging "beards" of the gargan bell, Rade, Kemularia, with numerous blue, lilac flowers, or cascades of small-flowered species of bells, round-leaved Moravian, flax-leaved.

Alpine slide

In recent years, rocky gardens have been very popular - flower beds where flowers are located together with stones. The stone is selected either to match the plants, or sharply shade them with a contrasting color. For example, against the background of black slate or coal crumbs, bells with white flowers - Carpathian, spoon-leaved and garlic-leaved, look spectacular.

In open sunny areas, it is better to plant such bells: three-toothed, saxifrage, daisy-leaved. They are especially attractive due to the amazing ratio of the miniature size of the plants themselves and large bright flowers. They form small pillows, or curtains, entirely covered with single flowers up to 4 cm long, purple, blue and light blue.

These bells bloom in the first half of May for 3-4 weeks. Very elegant are undersized (up to 15–20 cm high), profusely flowering meadows of Mediterranean species of bells - povoinichny, perforated, and dwarf species - spoon-leaved and dark.

Correct placement

Well-drained, loose, neutral or slightly alkaline soil is essential for successful cultivation of bells on alpine slides. Plants are planted on a hill in spring or late summer in open sunny places or in light partial shade. The rock garden is populated from the upper tier, gradually dropping down.

Bells are planted singly or in groups, and the larger the plants, the smaller the groups should be. Plants should not shade each other, their height should gradually decrease towards the sunny side. The slide will look more spectacular if at the same time flowering plants are located in different places. It is desirable that there are always several blooming groups.

Bells on an alpine slide should not be fed with manure, as this can lead to strong growth of vegetative shoots and reduce their winter hardiness. Top dressing can be done only once, in early spring, with complex fertilizer.

Bells are rather unpretentious to soils, but grow better on nutritious, well-drained soil, free of weeds.

On too rich in organic matter, these plants form many leaves, bloom twice a season, but fall out in the 3-4th year.

Different species have their own requirements for soil acidity, most of them grow well on neutral and slightly alkaline soils.

For mountain plants that are naturally found on limestone rocks, for example, for bells of gargan, Kemularia, Rade and three-toothed, the soil should be limed.

Many species do without irrigation, but those that grow in nature along river banks and in shady ravines, for example, Takeshima bells, pinpoint and broadleaf, should be watered abundantly. All bells do not tolerate stagnant water, so they should not be planted in areas flooded with rain and spring waters.

Basic care

It is very easy to care for these flowers. Before the start of the growing season, nitrogen fertilizers can be applied, then weeding, loosening the soil, watering, and in the fall - pruning. With the onset of the first frost, some species need light shelter. Bells should be transplanted in the spring - at the end of April - May or in August-September, so that the plants have time to take root before the onset of cold weather.

If bells are grown in one place for a long time, then pathogenic organisms accumulate in the soil. In this case, the soil and aboveground parts of the plants must be treated with a 0.2% solution of foundationol, and it is better to transplant the bells to a new place. A handful of superphosphate or a decoction of hot pepper will help get rid of slugs, an infusion of garlic and a soap solution will help get rid of aphids.

These flowers reproduce by seeds, and many of them give abundant self-seeding, for example, broad-leaved bell, large-leaved, lactic-flowered and crowded. Many species can be propagated vegetatively: by dividing the bush, segments of rhizomes, root suckers, green cuttings.

Especially impressive

At the entrance to the terrace, near the gazebo or on the shore of the reservoir, a milk-flowered bell looks great, even more spectacular is a pinkish-lilac spot from a group of these plants on a flat green lawn.

If there is not enough space

If a small area is allocated for flowers on a plot, then miniature gardens or portable flower girls are created. It is better to plant low bells, such as Carpathian, in wide, flat containers.


Hosts - variety of species and use in the garden

Hosts are ornamental, large-leaved, unpretentious, luxurious queens of the shadow. The unique herbaceous perennial is so popular and irreplaceable that without it it is impossible to imagine a single secluded corner of the garden. Equally inimitable in regular style and contemporary design, the hosta invites you to admire the luxury of foliage in spectacular rosettes. The choice of species and varieties is so significant that with the help of hosts, you can decorate literally any garden and any ensemble. It is truly a versatile plant, but it does not lose its status as a luxurious perennial. In this post, we'll talk about host diversity and their use in garden design.


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