Black raspberries are very often confused with blackberries, considering them to be the same culture. However, these are completely different plants with significant differences and, accordingly, different agricultural techniques. Black raspberry varieties are still a rarity in the garden plots of Russians, but unusual sweet and healthy dark berries are gaining more and more fans among gardening enthusiasts.
Traditional raspberry varieties have red berries, but there are plants with orange, purple, yellow and even black fruits. Unlike blackberries, with which black raspberries are often confused, their berries are very easily separated from the stalk, which is the main difference between crops.
Black raspberries are colored red when unripe, and ripe fruits turn black
Black raspberries grow not only in gardens, they can also be found in nature. The plant grows in the forests of eastern North America, in particular, it is widespread in the central and northern regions of Illinois, USA. Habitat - massifs of deciduous forests, borders along forest plantations, there are also large thickets of black raspberries in open areas.
Black raspberry is a perennial shrub that grows upright shoots in the first year of life. In the future, lateral processes appear on them, and the stems take a falling shape. Flowers and fruits appear only on the shoots of the second year of life. Initially, the stems are green with a bluish tinge, over the winter they become lignified and acquire a brown tint. Each shoot is covered with short, curved spines.
During the second year of life, short lateral processes appear on the stems, which end in clusters of buds. The leaves consist of 5 lobes, which are ovoid and have small denticles at the edges. The upper side of each leaf has a strong pubescence, and the lower surface is covered with short white hairs.
Black raspberry flowers are grouped in a brush
Flowers are densely grouped in clusters. Each flower has 5 white petals, 5 green sepals and numerous stamens. The petals are elliptical or oblong, and the sepals are triangular. They are about the same length. The flowering period occurs in late spring or early summer and lasts about 2-3 weeks.
The fruits are initially white, then turn red and finally, when ripe, acquire a black-purple color. The fleshy bones that make up the fruit are sweet and slightly tart in taste, they easily detach from the stalk.
The biochemical composition of black raspberries differs from red ones. A large amount of vitamin P and P-active compounds help protect cells from aging, improve the body's immune system, and improve the condition of anemia. But the most important property of black raspberry, scientists consider its ability to increase the effectiveness of the fight against cancer.
Black raspberries look very exotic
Breeders are constantly working on developing new varieties of black raspberry, which is considered a promising crop. Thanks to their efforts, new products often appear on the market.
Experts recommend starting planting black raspberry seedlings in early spring. If the procedure is carried out in the fall, then immature plants may not tolerate frost and die. To place a raspberry tree, several important points should be taken into account:
The size of the planting hole must be at least 50 cm deep and wide
A nutritious substrate is poured into the planting hole from the top layer of the earth, humus, sand and wood ash
A minimum of 0.5 m is left between the plants, and 1-1.5 m between the rows
A feature of black raspberry is that it does not reproduce by root suckers, that is, the culture will not creep.Thanks to this, chokeberry varieties can be safely planted in the middle of the site, combine plantings with other berry and fruit crops, and even place bushes in a flower garden.
Black raspberries are considered an unassuming crop. Caring for it comes down to pruning, several watering and top dressing per season. And lush, well-groomed bushes with gracefully curved shoots will become an adornment of the site that attracts attention.
During the season, the culture requires three additional fertilizing. The procedure is started when the plant has bloomed. To do this, make an infusion of chicken manure (1 part to 16 parts of water) or manure (1: 6). To 10 liters of the prepared nutrient solution add 1 liter of wood ash and 50 g of superphosphate. Under the black raspberry bush, one bucket of top dressing is introduced, pouring it along the perimeter of the plantings. After fertilization, the soil is moistened abundantly. The second feeding with the same solution is carried out during the ripening of the fruits, and the third - after collecting the first berries.
The shoots of black raspberries are very long, in the first year after planting they grow upright, and in the second they take the shape of an arch. At the same time, the tops of the heads, touching the ground, can take root, as a result of which the plantings will be thickened. Because of this cultural feature, it is very important to take care of the support of the plant in advance. To do this, make a wire trellis. At the beginning and end of the row, wooden posts about 2 m high are dug in, on which a strong wire is attached in three rows, placing it at a height of 0.5 m, 1.8 m and 2.1 m.
Another option for support for powerful shoots can be an arch. It is installed between two bushes, and the stems are attached to arches. This design is not only functional, but also very decorative.
Black raspberry shoots will grow long and curved, so you need to take care of the support in advance
Pruning of black raspberries is carried out twice a year: the first procedure is at the end of June, and the second is in late autumn. When performing summer pruning, the apical part of the stems is cut off at a height of 1.7 m. This contributes to a more intensive development of side branches, the number of which can reach 6-8 pieces, which will increase the yield of the bush. In the fall, it is necessary to cut out 2-year-old shoots that have already borne fruit. And 1-year-old stems are shortened to a size of 30-50 cm above the ground.
Black raspberries do not tolerate frosts as well as their red-fruited relative, therefore, it is necessary to carefully prepare them for wintering. For this you need:
If the winter has little snow, then snow is shoveled onto the bushes and sawdust is poured onto it, which will help prevent melting.
Black raspberry shoots must be bent to the ground and attached with metal brackets
Black raspberries reproduce differently than red ones. The thing is that black-fruited varieties do not form root suckers. But it is possible to breed a culture on the site with the help of layering, apical cuttings and seeds.
The procedure for propagating black raspberries with horizontal layers should be started in the spring.
This method is very effective. One adult plant can produce 5–6 quality seedlings.
Reproduction of raspberries by horizontal layers is the easiest way
Another breeding method is green cuttings. The procedure is carried out in the summer, while harvesting planting material is desirable on a cloudy day. In the middle of the season, small shoots with several leaves appear from the roots of adult black raspberry bushes. Such shoots must be cut with a knife 2-3 cm below the soil level.
After that, they are placed in a container with Kornevin's solution for 6-8 hours. Then they are planted in a school at a distance of about 10 cm from each other, the soil is moistened and the planting is covered with a film.
To reproduce black raspberries, take green shoots 7-10 cm long and cut them off with a part of the root
After about a month, green cuttings will begin to take root, a sign of this will be the appearance of new leaves. At this time, you can reduce watering and ventilate the greenhouse more often. In the spring of the next season, the rooted cuttings are transplanted to a permanent place, while they should be dug out together with a lump of earth.
Reproduction of black raspberries by seeds is considered one of the most troublesome and time-consuming methods, but if there is no other way to get seedlings, then you can grow a bush from a berry. For this:
Seedlings are planted in a permanent place in the ground 2 years after sowing the seeds
Black raspberries are a healthy berry, the taste of which is not inferior to its relative with red fruits. However, scientists believe that it is black raspberry that helps fight cancer. In addition, the culture has many other advantages, it is incredibly beautiful and looks very exotic. Its offspring do not creep over the site, so you can even plant a plant in a flower garden.
I am fond of many things. Handicraft, gardening, floriculture and cooking are just a few of my hobbies. I am constantly discovering something new and learning something interesting. I am ready to share all my knowledge with my readers.
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I heard about this variety of raspberries (or a hybrid of raspberries with blackberries, in different garden centers it is positioned this way and that) for a long time. But somehow I didn’t come across it, and I really wanted to start such a variety. I purposefully searched for him all last fall, but to no avail.
Raspberry Cumberland. Photo by the author
But at the beginning of summer, when in our climate a long time ago they stopped planting and replanting trees and shrubs (the heat came), I found him. Probably, I was just lucky, because in a huge two-tier container, where you can place up to 100 plants, there was a single pot with sprouts of the cherished raspberry! No longer thinking about the heat, drought and other "delights" of our summer, I bought it, deciding: nothing, I'll grow it! I will shade, water, save - I will never let him go to waste!
And you know, the seedling pleasantly surprised me: ignoring the sweltering heat, it started growing by leaps and bounds! True, when planting, I replaced the removed soil with soil mixture: black soil, sand, ready-made soil for seedlings (1: 1: 1) and added a little wood ash (I never throw it out of the barbecue, I always put it in paper bags - it will come in handy). And, of course, she watered it regularly.
The seedling appreciated my efforts: on two shoots that were already on sale, flowers appeared and berries ripened! Although there weren't many of them, I was able to taste them! Maybe 'Cumberland' contains a lot of vitamins, but in taste and smell these berries are not at all like raspberries, rather like blackberries.
A large assortment of different types and varieties of raspberries, including 'Cumberland', you can find in our catalog, which combines the offers of many large garden online stores. Choose raspberry seedlings.
So, in my opinion, the pluses of this variety are:
But there are also disadvantages:
Well, I tried to objectively evaluate the variety, based on my little experience in growing it. I read that with proper care (timely watering and dressing, correct pruning) from one bush you can get from 4 to 7 kg of berries of maximum fruiting, this raspberry reaches the 3rd year of life. Let's see how it will bear fruit next year.
With good care, Cumberland will reward you with a good harvest. Photo from the site ogorod.mirtesen.ru
It is believed that the black raspberry 'Cumberland' is not widespread in our country, although the variety is more than 100 years old. I don’t believe in it, our enthusiastic summer residents didn’t grow anything like that! Who has Cumberland raspberries, answer me!
Irina Saratovskaya: One bush grows. I can't taste the berries. They are empty for me. What to do with it? Cook jam?
Valentina Voronenko: Irina, I close compotes for the winter, purely from such raspberries and mixed with other berries. The result is pleasing. I will breed a variety, it grows and multiplies very quickly, the berries are dense, do not sour like ordinary raspberries and the yield is higher. Of the minuses, it is very prickly and shoots of three meters.
Albina Zamazkina: It has been growing for me for a long time, this year I will harvest, we do not collect berries, it is impossible to spike.
Anastasia Petrenko: Very tasty raspberries, we have it for a long time, "came" to us from our neighbors.
Galina Dobrygina: I grew mine from seeds. They sent me dry ones, smeared the berries on the newspaper, dried them and sent them away. She comes from the city of Artyom, Primorye. I'm happy with it. In compotes, in jam along with red. The color is beautiful. And children, when they were little, loved to eat them. Red, white and black.
Margarita Kozyreva: Birds still steal berries. Several bushes were "planted" behind my house)))
Natalia Ibragimova: Raspberry about nothing, I was not impressed, the berries are small, the taste is not certain. So, indulge.
Irina Danyaeva: The aroma is delicate, pleasant, the taste is slightly sour, sweet, does not give a sore mouth. It is better to eat berries fresh or add to compotes, after freezing I did not like it - they become none (for my taste). Without trellises - nothing: shoots grow, picking berries is inconvenient. For the winter I take it off the tapestries, tie it, bend it down - it winters well. It grows in partial shade along the southern fence, watering is regular, especially in the heat and when the berries are being poured. We cover the soil under the bushes with humus, compost, cover it with a thick layer of straw - moisture persists for a long time and weeds break through with difficulty.
Lyubov Malakhova: I don't really like this berry either. Fresh, there are a lot of seeds, to collect - very prickly. We will get rid of it, it is better to plant a blackberry.
Nadezhda Korepanova: We love Cumberland! It is good in compotes, it will color any berry with a rich maroon color! The truth is very prickly, when collecting and picking up the kerchief, it will take off and scratch, the husband takes care of it, he has to endure. The truth is very tasty, sweet for me berry!
Nadezhda Korepanova: We eat frozen.
You can participate in the discussion by going to the page in our group on vKontakte.
My neighbors have a bush with berries that look like raspberries. They bought it like an ordinary raspberry, but it turned out that the fruits are black. They thought it was blackberry, and I believe it was black raspberry. The bush is low, drooping, winters well. I would like to multiply it, but it does not have overgrowths. What is this plant?
N. Milovanova, Perm
Blackberries can be easily distinguished from black raspberries. The main feature is the structure of the berry. Ripe raspberries are easily removed from the branch, and the berry is hollow inside, and the white dense base remains on the stalk. The color of the berry depends on the variety and can be red, yellow, orange and deep black.
Blackberries are not removed from their "axis" - each can be picked only whole, since it grows more fruitfully with the rest of the parts.
Many people believe that black raspberries are a hybrid of raspberries and blackberries - ezhemalina. Such hybrids exist, but their berries are more like blackberries: they are usually oblong and rather large (black raspberries are not large in size).
In the photo there is a black raspberry. The most famous variety is Cumberland, most likely this is it. It has become widespread due to its winter hardiness. Without shelter, the bush can withstand frosts down to -25 degrees. It hibernates under snow and at lower temperatures.
The stems are about two meters long, sometimes more, they are curved in an arcuate manner, have thorns. The leaves are light green, somewhat smaller than those of ordinary raspberries. Both stems and berries are covered with a silvery bloom.
The berries are very tasty, they are low in acid. They are dense, well transported, and suitable for all types of processing.
The benefits of black raspberries are still being studied, but it is already known that it contains ellagic acid, which has the strongest antioxidant activity and is an effective prevention of cancer.
Besides utilitarian, black raspberry also has decorative value. The compact bush, strewn with berries, looks very attractive. The impression is enhanced by the fact that the berries ripen at different times. Both black and red fruits are on the plant at the same time. Moreover, they are collected in one inflorescence, which gives a special decorative effect.
Unlike ordinary raspberries, black plants do not climb anywhere, as they do not give root suckers. This allows the use of black raspberries in compositions with other shrubs.
Black raspberries are propagated by layering. To do this, at the end of summer, the branches are bent to the ground. Sprinkle fertile soil and fix the shoot so that the crown remains on the surface. Rooted layers are separated from the bush and planted separately.
ABOUT VARIETIES. In the Middle Lane, the most famous black raspberry variety is Cumberland. But there are other varieties that are still little known: these are Pivot, Coal, Luck, Gift of Siberia, Black Jewel, Earley, Bristal, Litach, etc.
Raspberry is not simple, but ... black
I have a black raspberry Cumberland growing on my site. It has many advantages over ordinary raspberries: it bears fruit for a long time and abundantly, does not give growth, practically does not get sick and is not affected by pests.
It is better to plant black raspberries in the fall - in late September - early October.
The place where red raspberries and apple trees grew before is not suitable for culture. Also bad predecessors are potatoes, tomatoes and other nightshades. Do not plant black raspberries and blackberries together.
My planting scheme: the distance between the bushes is 1.5-2 m, between the rows - 2 m.I dig holes with a depth and diameter of 40-50 cm.In each I bring 6-8 kg of humus, 150-200 g of superphosphate and 70-80 g of potassium sulfate. I mix fertilizers with fertile soil and fill the root system of the seedlings with the resulting substrate. Then I water the plants abundantly and mulch with peat (you can use rotted compost or chopped straw) with a layer of 6-10 cm.