Growing tomatoes is a rather laborious task. Often, the situation is complicated by the emerging cracks on the already grown and ripe fruits. The advice of experienced vegetable growers will help to save the harvest.
Fruit cracking is not found in all tomato varieties. The appearance of cracks is typical for large-fruited early-maturing varieties that were bred back in Soviet times. Gardeners now have a much wider variety of vegetable varieties. It is believed that late-ripening varieties are less prone to cracking, but this does not mean that the choice of a variety solves all problems caused by illiterate care. Tomatoes are a very capricious crop to care for, and non-observance of the rules for growing them will lead to cracking of even the strongest species. Through the cracks, pathogens can penetrate into the fruit. If tomatoes are not picked in time, the infection can affect the shoots, and the plant will die.
After picking, damaged tomatoes cannot be stored for a long time and made into homemade preparations with whole vegetables.
To avoid cracking, choose varieties for planting that have proven themselves not prone to cracking. These include: Alcazar, Nasha Masha, Amore, Moscow Region, Gusarsky, Favorite, La-La-Fa, Malibu, Origami, Vasilievna, Rosaletta, Rosario, Rosemax.
Tomato bushes are sensitive to the mineral composition of the soil and its ability to retain moisture. Therefore, tomatoes should be grown in soils with good moisture capacity. In this case, after watering, part of the water does not evaporate and does not go deep into the ground, it is retained for some time in the root area. Tomato bushes have a highly branched root system. It is located close to the surface of the earth and consists of thin roots, which are responsible for the absorption of moisture from the soil. Therefore, the beds with tomatoes must be kept in a moderately moist and loosened state. This will help the vegetable crop get enough moisture, actively grow and bear fruit.
Improper watering is considered the main reason for the cracking of tomato fruits. If you water the bushes not regularly, especially in dry and hot weather, then after watering there is a sharp, one-time oversaturation of the plant with moisture. Often this situation occurs in polycarbonate greenhouses, where the temperature in summer can reach 40-50 ° C.
The peel of tomatoes is not elastic, it does not withstand a sharp increase in the volume of pulp saturated with moisture, therefore cracks appear.
Vegetable crops in the growing phase - before fruit set - should be watered daily, and after the formation of ovaries - in the morning 2-3 times a week, taking into account weather conditions. When using a hose, it is recommended to use a spray to prevent water droplets from falling on the leaves and causing sunburn.
For plants grown in greenhouses, normal air circulation is very important. In a polycarbonate greenhouse in hot weather, the air temperature can reach critical values. It should be remembered that the maximum permissible temperature for growing vegetables is 40 ° C, and overheating can be detrimental to plants. At high temperatures, moisture quickly evaporates, the walls of the greenhouse fog up, and condensation appears. In a humid environment, due to the rapid multiplication of harmful bacteria, there is a risk of developing "black leg", fungal diseases, and the appearance of brown spots.
In hot summer weather, be sure to ventilate the greenhouse. If watering is done in the morning, and it is this humidification mode that is optimal for tomatoes, then open the greenhouse after half an hour.
Collecting tomatoes can be carried out without waiting for them to fully ripen. This will increase their shelf life. They ripen at room temperature. In addition, you will save them from cracking and reduce the risk of crop loss due to late blight. Some sources recommend not leaving tomatoes on the bushes after July 25 - August 1. Harvest the fruit before watering, otherwise it may crack.
Experienced farmers know that the disease of seedlings and seedlings "black leg" is easier to prevent than to waste time and effort on treatment. Knowing simple guidelines, you can grow strong seedlings of your favorite crops.
Here are the simplest guidelines:
Soil, especially acidic soil, is the main source of infection. Before sowing add deoxidizing materials to the soil... Suitable here: dolomite or lime flour, wood ash. Prepare the soil ahead of time before sowing, 5-7-10 days, so that the deoxidation processes take place.
Apply biological agents Gamair, Alirin, which contain bacteria that suppress the spread of fungal pathogenic soil infection. They are also added to the soil prior to sowing the seeds.
Sowing those crops that require a neutral soil reaction, and this is cabbage, asters, additionally add a solution of potassium permanganate (or sulfur 0.4%, or Maxim) for soil disinfection.The use of phytosporin has a prophylactic direction and, when a disease occurs, will not help much in the fight against the "black leg".
Dense crops, excessive soil moisture, little light - this is the ideal atmosphere for a blackfoot flash. Therefore, do not be greedy, and sow the required amount of seedlings, with a small margin for unexpected losses. Do not plant dense, frequent crops.
After the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings of the "risk group" should be given more attention. Well proven calcined river washed sand and ash. The sown seeds are sprinkled with sand. A mixture of sand and ash is used when seedlings emerge from the ground, making a "pillow" around the stem. This creates unbearable conditions for the outbreak of the "black leg".
Loosening and moderate watering, airing - important factors of protection against a malignant disease.
Many gardeners, wanting to grow an early harvest on their plots, build greenhouses where tomatoes and cucumbers ripen much earlier than their neighbors in the open field. And also, growing vegetables in greenhouses, people try to protect the plant from adverse external factors, acid rain, scorching sun, etc. Perhaps, plants under a film cover will be protected from something, but do not forget that in protected ground for bacterial diseases ideal conditions are created. Tomatoes and cucumbers are most often grown in greenhouses. It is known that over the past decade, the yield of the most popular vegetable - tomato - has been declining rapidly. Diseases of the tomato in the greenhouse and in the open field do their dirty work. This article will talk about diseases and how to deal with dangerous bacteria that infect tomatoes.
Tomatoes processed in this way do not get sick during storage. Fruits partially affected by late blight, in which diseased spots are cut out, as well as all green trifles can be used for preparing delicious salads for future use.
If there are signs of a black leg, the soil must be steamed or frozen. So that it does not become waterlogged, sprinkle with calcined cooled sand on top or dust it with a mixture of sand and ash. The foci of the disease are treated with a solution of Bordeaux liquid (100 g per 10 l of water) or watered with potassium permanganate diluted to a dark pink color.
Top rot on tomato fruits.
An interesting solution than it is allowed to spray tomatoes in a greenhouse is an infusion of garlic from phytophthora. It turns out that his fungus does not like it either. This is perfect for a summer with a lot of rainfall and high humidity as a result. Your task is to crush the heads of garlic and mix them with potassium permanganate: we dilute about one and a half glasses of this good in a bucket of water. Up to five times per season every two weeks is an approximate rate.
This tool, which has been on the shelves for a long time, has managed to fall in love with gardeners. Its effectiveness is undeniable, it removes even strong defeats instantly. Therefore, if you are looking for how to spray tomatoes from late blight, you will not find a better option. One tablet is diluted in five liters of water, the drug penetrates deeply into plant tissues and destroys the disease from the inside. For four days, the fruits should not be eaten. You can repeat the treatment after two weeks, but no more than three times per season. If it rains within 6 hours after treatment, the procedure must be repeated.
The second method is the treatment of tomatoes with copper chloride. To do this, you need to take two tablespoons and dilute them in a bucket of water. It must be remembered that harvesting of fruits is possible three weeks after processing. It should be remembered that such treatment is good only until the pathogen has penetrated deep into the fetal tissue. If late blight has already appeared on tomatoes, the treatment should be much more serious.
The disease is widespread throughout Russia. That is why today we will consider how to process tomatoes from late blight. The first crop affected by this disease is potatoes. From him, the disease spreads to other plants, in particular to tomatoes. In some years, especially when the summer is humid and warm, it captures almost all plantings. The pathogen is very difficult to completely destroy; it tolerates wintering well. At the same time, spores are easily carried by the wind, washed off with irrigation water and transported with clothes and pollen.
Diseases of a tomato in a greenhouse. Types and methods of treatment
When spider mites appear in the greenhouse, sprinkle the plants with a solution of colloidal sulfur (50-100 g per 10 L of water) or the biological preparation Agrovertin (80 ml per 10 L of water).
Brown-black spots appear on the underside of the fruit. They blush prematurely, become dehydrated.
The most reliable means of saving the harvest is to remove all the fruits immediately after the first signs of the disease appear
- this is the most dangerous disease. First, brown spots appear on the leaves, they turn yellow and dry out. Then green fruits are affected.
Often, serum and iodine from phytophthora are found in the lists of recipes for protecting tomatoes with folk remedies. Milk whey is diluted in half with water and from the beginning of the hottest period, from about July, you can safely handle the planting. If there is no whey, we replace it with milk and also dilute it with water, adding 15 drops of iodine. Everything is designed for a bucket of water.
Most of all troubles are delivered by late blight on tomatoes in a greenhouse. How to deal with the disease, we will consider right now. It is for this purpose that a new drug called "Profit" has been released. Its advantage is that it does not penetrate into the fruits and tissues of the plant. Processing is carried out at the first signs of the disease. At the same time, the drug is quite toxic, so the number of treatments is limited. Maximum of them can be carried out two. After processing, the fruit cannot be harvested for 20 days. It helps much better than copper sulfate from late blight on tomatoes, but its toxicity is much less.
First of all, if you notice typical symptoms, it is necessary to break off any darkened leaves or fruits. Don't forget to destroy them. Now you already know for sure that late blight appeared on tomatoes. Treatment will consist of treating the bush with a saline solution. To do this, you need to dissolve a glass of table salt in 10 liters of water. When the salt dries, it forms a protective film that helps contain the spread of infection.
As already mentioned, the largest outbreaks are observed in greenhouses, so the summer resident should always be ready and know how to treat tomatoes from late blight. First, brown spots appear on the leaves, the leaf turns yellow and dries up. Then hard brown scabs appear on the green fruits. Diseased fruits turn black, rot and die off. When harvesting, this is also very noticeable. Outwardly, tomatoes may look healthy, but if they are already infected with a fungus, they will turn black after a couple of days. This is how late blight manifests itself on tomatoes. We will consider how to deal with this formidable disease a little later, but for now let's talk about preventive measures.
The main method of combating this disease is the timely spraying of plants with copper preparations (copper oxychloride, Bordeaux liquid, and others). Spraying is carried out for the first time during the period of mass fruit setting, then they do it again with an interval of 7-12 days. The appearance of the first mushrooms in the forest can serve as a signal of urgent action against late blight.
Means of protection of tomatoes from apical rot.
, Select the sick for processing, and rinse the healthy ones thoroughly in hot water (60 ° C), wipe and fold for ripening. At this time, the disease can still manifest itself on the fruits, so they are periodically sorted out.
Hard brownish-brown spots are formed both outside and inside. Tomatoes do not ripen, turn black and rot.
Before spraying tomatoes with industrial preparations for phytophthora, it is important to remember one simple truth. Everything in this world adapts and the fungus is no exception. If the issue is resolved radically, you will have to immediately purchase several species, since the fungus adapts and the previously purchased chemical may be powerless for the second season.
Tomatoes are often susceptible to fungal infections. This vegetable crop is very sensitive to increased moisture levels. The reason for the appearance of late blight may be improper, too abundant watering. But dry and hot weather, on the contrary, will allow late blight to not spread. It is also very important to follow the rules for growing and caring for tomatoes. Prevention of late blight on tomatoes in a greenhouse is the most effective method in combating the disease.
It may seem that in bad weather conditions, the treatment of late blight on tomatoes will still not give positive results. But still, you can take steps that reduce the risk of getting the disease to a minimum:
Fungal spores can also be found in seeds. Therefore, you should be very careful when preparing the seed yourself. In no case should you collect fruits for seeds from infected bushes. Even if there are no signs of late blight lesions on a particular fruit from an infected bush, this does not mean at all that it is healthy. It's just that the spots may not appear immediately.
Author: Listyeva Lilia 09 September 2016 Category: Garden plants
Phytophthora (Latin Phytophthora) - a genus of mushroom-like protists that cause late blight disease, most often affecting nightshade crops, including tomatoes. Phytophthora has more than a hundred species. The name of the disease "late blight" consists of two ancient Greek words and in translation means roughly "destroying, or destroying a plant." Indeed, this disease can destroy a plant in just a few days.
If the measures taken to prevent the disease did not help and the tomatoes hit late blight, the development of the fungus should be slowed down and contained. There are many means of combating late blight of tomatoes, you just need to choose those preparations that are suitable for use in the greenhouse, because they have different degrees of toxicity.
Means for combating late blight in the greenhouse can be conditionally divided into three types:
Each of the options has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The use of chemicals, the most effective method of combating late blight and the most unsafe for human health.
In order to avoid the ingress of "chemistry" into the body for a long time, you must not eat the fruits of tomatoes.
It is advised to use these funds in extreme cases when other measures of influence have not helped.
In the early stages of diseases, biological preparations have a good effect, they are harmless to humans.
Folk methods for combating late blight are safe, but there is a significant disadvantage, they are not always effective.
Experienced gardeners highlight several effective folk remedies for combating late blight in greenhouses:
In case of plant disease, to allow tomatoes to ripen, you can prepare a 10% saline solution, it will completely burn the leaves of the plants.
For processing tomatoes in a greenhouse, the use of chemical control agents is recommended in critical cases, when the disease has already greatly spread.
More often than others, experienced gardeners use the following tools:
Strictly observe the dosage indicated by the manufacturer. Observe safety precautions when handling chemicals.
The stores also present other chemicals that are suitable for combating late blight in the greenhouse, such as: "Bravo", "Barrier", "Zaslon" and others.
Tomatoes can be eaten only three weeks after processing, they must be washed well beforehand.
Biologicals are more environmentally friendly and safer, but less effective.... They include special microorganisms in an inactive form; upon contact with water, they multiply rapidly and fight late blight.
To combat late blight, spraying tomatoes in a greenhouse can be done at all stages of growth. It is better to spray in the evening, in order to prepare a solution, it is necessary to dissolve 5 g of a powdery preparation in 10 liters of water, repeat the treatment procedure after 7-10 days.
The use of biological products is more effective in the early stages of tomato development.
Experienced gardeners often use medications to treat tomatoes in a greenhouse:
Hot weather and lack of timely irrigation will slow down fruit development. And an attempt to correct the situation by introducing large portions of water or falling out of a significant amount of precipitation will provoke accelerated growth. The skin will not have time to adapt to changing conditions and will crack.
The flooding of the beds also negatively affects. An excess of liquid bursts the tomatoes from the inside.
If the culture grows in a greenhouse environment, then it must be remembered that watering is carried out there more often, because the soil dries out faster.